- Viharas are dwelling places used by wandering monks during the rainy season which later evolved into centres of learning.
- Chaityas are shrines, sanctuaries, temples or prayer halls which have a giant hall with high vaulted roof, with a lot of sculpture work on the pillars and the entrance.
- Stupa refers to a heap or a mound which were commonly used as burial mounds in India.
- The art of stupas reached its pinnacle during the era of Ashoka and during his reign, around 84000 stupas were built.
- According to Buddhist tradition, nine stupas were originally built following Buddha’s death, eight contained relics and one containing the vessel in which the relics were first put.
- These stupas were built at Rajagriha, Vaishali, Kapilvastu, Allakapa, Ramagrama, Vethadipa, Pava, Kushinagar, and Pippalvina.
Features of Stupas
- The stupa’s core was composed of unburnt bricks, with a burnt brick outer face covered in a thick coating of plaster.
- The stupa was capped by a wooden railing that encircled a pradakshina patha (circumambulatory path).
- Which is a magnificent stupa with a circumambulatory route and a circular mound.
- Gateways were added in addition to the circumambulatory circuit.
- With the elaborations in stupa design, architects and sculptors had plenty of room to plan elaborations and carve out images.
- Wooden sculptures were used to embellish the medhi and toran. As a form of worship, devotees walk around the pradakshina patha, or open ambulatory pathway.
- Sculptures were largely utilized to decorate stupas, the torana, and the medhi, as well as a form of religious expression.
- The three chhatra on the stupas symbolize the Buddhist triratnas: Buddha (the enlightened), Dhamma (doctrine), and Sangh (community).
- Gateways were added in addition to the circumambulatory circuit. With the elaborations in stupa design, architects and sculptors had plenty of room to plan elaborations and carve out images.
Some Important stupas
|Sanchi stupa||Madhya Pradesh||
|Amaravati stupa||Andhra Pradesh||
|Bharhut Stupa||Madhya Pradesh||