Hydrogen and its types
#GS-03 Science and Technology
- Hydrogen is the first and lightest element on the periodic table and is rarely found in its pure form.
- Hydrogen is a nontoxic, non-metallic, odourless, tasteless, colourless, and highly combustible gas at standard room temperature and pressure.
- It can be used in fuel cells or internal combustion engines and is also used as a fuel for spacecraft propulsion.
- Hydrogen is a completely non-polluting fuel since on burning it gives out water vapour as the sole by-product.
- Hydrogen gas can be created by using electrolytic division of water.
- Electrolysers use an electric current to split water into its basic components of hydrogen and oxygen, which emits zero-carbon dioxide.
- When the process energy for electrolysis is generated from renewable sources, the hydrogen generated is called green Hydrogen.
- Green hydrogen currently makes up a small percentage of the overall hydrogen, due to high production costs.
Types of Hydrogen
- Blue hydrogen is produced using a process called steam reforming.
- This process brings together natural gas and heated water in the form of steam.
- Which results in the creation of Hydrogen and Carbon dioxide.
- The resultant CO2 is captured using carbon capture and storage (CCS)
- This is the most common form of hydrogen production method currently in use.
- Grey hydrogen is created from natural gas, or methane, using steam methane reformation however, the resultant CO2 is not captured.
Black and brown hydrogen
- This hydrogen-making process uses black coal or lignite (brown coal).
- Black and brown hydrogen are the antithesis to green hydrogen in the hydrogen spectrum and are the most environmentally damaging.
- In common parlance, hydrogen made from any fossil fuels through the process of ‘gasification’ is often called black or brown hydrogen
- Pink hydrogen is also generated through electrolysis, however, the electricity will be generated through nuclear energy.
- Nuclear-produced hydrogen is also sometimes referred to as purple hydrogen or red hydrogen.
- This is a new entry in the hydrogen colour spectrum and production has not yet been proven at scale.
- Turquoise hydrogen is made through a process called methane pyrolysis which produces hydrogen and solid carbon.
- Yellow hydrogen is a new phrase for hydrogen made through electrolysis when the power is derived from solar power.
- White hydrogen is a naturally-occurring hydrogen found in underground deposits and extracted through fracking.