#GS-03 Science and Technology
About INS Arihant:
- INS Arihant is the lead ship of India’s Arihant class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines.
- The vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project at the Ship Building Centre in the port city of Visakhapatnam.
- INS Arihant is designated S2 Strategic Strike Nuclear Submarine.
- INS Arihant is the first of the planned five in the class of submarines designed and constructed as a part of the Indian Navy’s Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project.
- The ship is powered by an 83 MW pressurised light-water reactor with enriched uranium fuel.
The hull for the vessel was built by L&T’s Hazira shipbuilding facility.
- Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division (SED) built the control systems for the submarine.
- Arihant has four vertical launch tubes, which can carry 12 (three per launch tube) smaller K-15 missiles or four larger K-4 missiles.
- Arihant holds the distinction of being the first ballistic missile submarine to have been built by a country other than one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
About Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM):
- A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
- India uses its K family of missiles, (K for ‘Kalam’) as SLBMs to maintain second strike capability.
- The ability to launch nuclear missiles from Submarines is an important aspect of ensuring second strike capability and the most technologically advanced aspect of the nuclear triad.
About Nuclear Triad:
- A nuclear triad is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines, and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles.
- Specifically, these components are land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and strategic bombers.
- Presently only four countries are confirmed to be maintaining nuclear triad, which are China, India, Russia and United States.