Doctrines of Jainism:
- Anekantavada in Jainism is the ontological assumption that any entity is at once enduring but also undergoing change that is both constant and inevitable.
The doctrine of anekantavada follows that all entities have three aspects: substance (dravya), quality (guna), and mode (paryaya).
- Dravya serves as a substratum for multiple gunas, each of which is itself constantly undergoing transformation or modification.
- Thus, any entity has both an abiding continuous nature and qualities that are in a state of constant flux.
Anekantavada is literally the doctrine of “non- onesidedness” or “manifoldness”, it is often translated as “non-absolutism”.
- Syadvada, in Jaina metaphysics, the doctrine that all judgments are conditional, holding good only in certain conditions, circumstances, or senses, expressed by the word syat (“may be”).
- It postulates that reality is complex no single proposition can express the nature of reality fully.
- Nayavada is the theory of partial standpoints or viewpoints.
- The doctrine of Nayavada believes that the system of describing reality from different points of view.
- “Naya” can be understood as partially true statements, but they cannot lay claim to absolute validity.
- It can also be defined as a particular opinion framed with a viewpoint, a viewpoint which does not rule out other viewpoints and is, therefore, an expression of a partial truth about an object.
First Jain council:
- The first council was held at Pataliputra in the 3rd century BCE under the presidency of Sthulabahu.
Second Jain council:
- The second council was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat in 512 CE under the presidency of Devardhigani Kshemasarmana. Angas were compiled during this council.
Sects of Jainism:
- The word Digambara means “sky clad.”
- Digambaras emphasize on nudity and believe that it is the absolute prerequisite to attain salvation.
- They represent the Jains who travelled to the south under the leadership of Bhadrabahu during the great famine took place in Magadha 200 years after the death of Mahavira.
- Digambara philosophy believes that women lack the kind of body and will power required to attain liberation (moksha), and they have to be reborn as a man before such an attainment is possible.
- This school of Jainism does not accept the 19th Tirthankara as a female, but rather as a male named Mallinatha.
- The Digambara ascetic must give up all his possessions including clothes and is allowed to have Rajoharana (peacock feather broom to brush away insects) and a Kamandalu (a wooden water pot for toilet hygiene).
- Shvetambara translates into “white clad.”
- Shvetambaras do not believe that complete nudity is important for salvation.
- They represent the Jains who stayed back in Magadha under the leadership of Sthulabahu when the famine struck.
- Shvetambaras believe that women are capable of attaining the same spiritual accomplishments as men.
- In Shvetambara tradition, the 19th Tirthankara is a female named Mali (the only female Tirthankara).
- Shvetambara tradition depicts the idols of Tirthankara wearing a loin-cloth, adorned with jewels and with glass eyes inserted in the marble.