Important amendments of the Constitution
The important amendments
Ninety Ninth Amendment, Act 2014
- Created a new body called the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) to replace the collegium for appointment of judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts.
- Supreme Court in 2015 declared this Amendment Act as unconstitutional and void by declaring independence of Judiciary as a basic feature of the constitution.
One Hundredth Amendment Act, 2014
- This was brought to give effect to the acquiring of certain territories by India and transfer of certain other territories to Bangladesh.
- In order to settle the problem of enclaves and retention of adverse possessions in pursuance of the Land Boundary Agreement of 1974 and its Protocol of 2011.
- This amendment act amended the provisions relating to the territories of four states viz, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Tripura in the First Schedule of the Constitution.
One Hundred and First Amendment Act, 2017
- This act introduced the Goods and Services Tax and creates the GST council.
- Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect, destination-based tax on the supply of goods and services.
- It is a comprehensive, multistage, destination-based tax which has subsumed almost all the indirect taxes except a few state taxes.
One Hundred and Second Amendment Act, 2018
- It provided constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes under India’s Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
- Inserted Article 338B into the Constitution after Articles 338 and 338A which deal with the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (SC) and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (ST) respectively.
One Hundred Third Amendment Act, 2019
- It created a new category for reservations under Economically Weaker Section for the first time in India
- The Act amended Article 15 and Article 16 to allow a 10% reservation to EWS in education, and public employment.
One Hundred Fourth Amendment Act, 2020
- It extended the deadline for the abolition of the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty,
- Ended the reservation for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.
One Hundred Fifth Amendment Act, 2021
- It restored the power of the State Governments and Union Territories to identify and specify Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC).