Ancient Indian Literature-Part 2
Ancient Scientific Books
- Sushruta Samhita written by Sushruta, is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery.
- Charaka Samhita written by Charaka, is a compendium of theories of Ayurveda.
- Sushruta Samhita along with Charaka Samhita are considered as the foundational books of Ayurveda which have survived from the ancient era.
- Aryabhatiyam is the magnum opus of Aryabhatta, and the book covers various theories of Mathematics and Astronomy.
- Brahmasphuṭasiddhanta is the main work of Brahmagupta and it also deals with Mathematics and Astronomy.
- Mahabhaskariya written by Bhaskara I in which he gives a formula for calculating sin x. Bhaskara is also credited with the representation of numbers in the positional system.
- Pancha-Siddhantika written by Varahamihira is treatise on mathematical astronomy which summarises five earlier astronomical treatises by five authors, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Pitamaha Siddhanta.
- Brihat-Samhita is another work by Varahamihira which talks about astronomy and planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, architecture etc.
- Gaṇitasarasangraha is a mathematics text written by Mahaviracharya and is considered the first book on arithmetic.
- Siddhanta Siromaṇi is the major treatise of Indian mathematician Bhāskara II. His other two major works are Lilavati and Bijagaṇita.
- Chandahsastra is a book written by Pingala, is a mathematical text which gives a treatise of calculations.
- Yoga Sutras by Patanjali gives the theory and method of practice of Yoga.
Ancient Grammer Books
- Aṣtadhyayi written by Panini is a grammar text that describes a form of early Sanskrit.
- Kavirajamarga is a rhetoric, poetics and grammar text in the Kannada language written by Rashtrakuta King Amoghavarsha.
Ancient Books on Law and Morality
- Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma who used animal fables to describe qualities in a moral person and the need for it.
- Manusmriti also known as Manava-Dharmasastra is the most well-known Dharmasastra of Hinduism.
- Arthashastra written by Kautilya is an ancient Sanskrit treatise on statecraft, political science, economic policy and military strategy.
Epics of Ancient India
- Mahabharata written by Veda Vyasa tells the story of rivalry between the Pandavas and Kauravas which resulted in the Kurukshetra war.
- Ramayana written by Valmiki gives the story of Lord Ram and his triumph over the evil Ravan.
- Ramayana and Mahabharata together are known as the great epics of India and Hindu religion.
- Raghuvamsa is a mahakavya (epic poem) in Sanskrit written by Kalidasa about the origin and development of the clan of Raghu.
- Kumarasambhava is another epic written by Kalidasa about Parvati courting Lord Shiva, their subsequent marriage
- Buddhacharita written by Asvagosha tells the story of Buddha from his birth till his death (Nirvana).
- Harshacharita by Banabhatta is the biography of Indian King Harsha Vardhana.
Ancient Books on Dance and Music
- Natya Sastra by Bharata Muni is a Sanskrit treatise on the performing arts. It is also the oldest surviving ancient Indian work on performance arts.
- Abhinaya Darpana by Nandikeshvara is another book which gives directions to those involved in the performance arts.
- Natya Sastra along with Abhinaya Darpana gives the basics of Bharatanatyam.
- Brihaddeshi written by Matanga is the first text to speak directly of the raga and distinguish classical music from folk music.
- Sangita-Ratnakara by Sarangadeva differentiated Carnatic and Hindustani music for the first time.
- Tolkappiyam is the most ancient text on Tamil grammar and is believed to have been written by Tolkappiyar.
- Silappathikaram written by Ilango Adigal gives the story of Kannagi who burns the city of Madurai to avenge her husband.
- Manimekalai written by Satthanar is a sequel to Silapathikaram and is the story of Manimekalai who is the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi and is a Buddhist nun.
- Ettuttokai is the collection of eight anthology stories of ancient Tamil literature.
- Pattuppattu is an anthology of ten longer poems in Sangam literature.
- Tirukkural written by Thiruvalluvar is one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality.