China-India Relations: Mapping Ties

China-India Relations: Mapping Ties

China-India Relations: Mapping Ties


Fresh turbulence has emerged, encompassing disputes over a new Chinese map and speculations about President Xi skipping the upcoming G-20 Summit in New Delhi.


GS_02 (India and its Neighborhood, International Relations)


  • Aksai Chin Region
  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
  • Nine-Dash Line
  • Line of Actual Control (LAC)

Mains Question:

Discuss the challenges and opportunities in India’s relationship with China, considering the need for stability in the region. (150 words)

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Recent Provocations
  • Past Actions Fueling Present Tensions
  • The Role of Summit Meetings
  • Rebuilding Trust through Sensitivity
  • A Road Ahead

Recent Provocations:

  • China released a new map in August 2023, asserting territorial claims over Arunachal Pradesh, Aksai Chin, and the South China Sea.
  • This move drew sharp criticism from India, as well as from Malaysia and the Philippines.
  • While China argued that this was a routine update, the timing and implications were hard to overlook.

Past Actions Fueling Present Tensions:

  • In 2019, India’s new map after the re-organization of Jammu and Kashmir and the formation of Ladakh as a Union Territory triggered a strong response from China.
  • This move, like China’s recent map, did not alter India’s external borders concerning China. Nevertheless, it contributed to the deepening mistrust between the two nations.
  • Some analysts suggest that China’s assertive actions along the Line of Actual Control, which sparked the ongoing crisis, were, in part, a reaction to India’s reaffirmation of its claims to Aksai Chin in 2019.

The Role of Summit Meetings:

  • Historically, summit meetings between Chinese and Indian leaders have provided opportunities to ease tensions.
  • The 2017 BRICS Summit, following the Doklam standoff, showcased how high-level interventions could reduce friction between the nations. However, the prospects of such a reconciliation appear bleak at present.

Rebuilding Trust through Sensitivity:

  • The path to improving China-India relations necessitates a gradual process of rebuilding trust, anchored in increased mutual sensitivity.
  • China must exhibit the same sensitivity that it expects from its neighbors if it genuinely seeks to mend these strained relations.
  • Repairing the damage caused by recent provocations and previous escalations will require substantial effort and goodwill from both sides.

A Road Ahead:

  • To navigate these turbulent waters successfully, both nations should commit to open dialogue, peaceful negotiations, and respecting each other’s territorial integrity.
  • The emphasis must be on pursuing regional stability and cooperation rather than stoking tensions.


The recent clash over territorial claims and the ambivalence surrounding President Xi’s participation in the G-20 Summit highlights the urgent need for diplomatic initiatives. Building trust through sensitivity, dialogue, and cooperation is the only sustainable way for these Asian giants to realize their shared potential and contribute positively to regional stability.