#GS 03 Biodiversity Conservation

For Prelims


  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement adopted in 1963 at a meeting of IUCN.
  • CITES entered into force in July 1975 and have 184 countries or regional economic integration organizations as parties to it currently.
  • India joined CITES on 20th July 1976.
  • Under CITES the international trade in specimens of selected species is subjected to certain controls.
  • All import, export, re-export, and introduction of the species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system.
  • Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Authorities for Management who will be in charge of administering the above mentioned licensing system.
  • Also, one or more Scientific Authorities need to be designated to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.

Appendix I

  • Appendix I includes species that are threatened with extinction hence trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

Appendix II

  • Appendix II includes species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but who’s trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

Appendix III

  • Appendix III contains species that are protected in at least one member country, and has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.
  • Changes to Appendix III can be made by the individual parities unilaterally unlike Appendices I and II.

Source “CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

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