Cooperative Federalism and Language

Settling the language for cooperative federalism

#GS-02 Federalism

For Prelims

Cooperative federalism:

  • Cooperative federalism is the concept which reflects the relationship between centre and state where they both come together and resolve the common problems with each other’s’ cooperation.

Constitutional Provisions regarding languages:

Article 343:
  • As per Article 343(1) of the Constitution of India, Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the Union.
Article 345:
  • Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State.
Article 348:
  • Article 348 stipulates that all proceedings of the Supreme Court and ‘of every High Court’ and of Bills, etc. in Parliament shall be in the English language.
The Eighth Schedule:
  • The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India and English is not one of them.
  • Initially, there were 14 official languages.
  • Now, there are 22 official languages in the 8th schedule of the Indian constitution.

Statutory Provisions:

Official Languages Act of 1963:
  • As per the Act, both English and Hindi shall be used for certain specified purposes like resolutions, rules, general orders, notifications, press communiqués, administrative and other reports, licenses, tenders, etc.
  • Section 7 of the Official Languages Act, 1963, provides that the use of Hindi or official language of a State in addition to the English language may be authorized, with the consent of the President of India, by the Governor of the State for purpose of judgments etc. made by the High Court for that State.

B.G. Kher Commission:

  • In 1955, the President of India appointed an Official Language Commission under the chairmanship of B.G. Kher.
  • In 1956, the commission submitted its report to the President and examined by a joint parliamentary committee.

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