Disparity Between Food Costs and Income Levels in Maharashtra

Disparity Between Food Costs and Income Levels in Maharashtra


In Maharashtra, the cost of a home-cooked vegetarian thali has risen by 71% in the last five years, surpassing the 37% increase in monthly salaries.

  • This discrepancy highlights affordability concerns, especially for households with fixed incomes or daily wages, and underscores broader issues surrounding inflation, wage growth, and household expenditure.

GS-03 (Economy)

Key Highlights:

  • Cost Escalation: The average cost of preparing two thalis per day in Maharashtra has surged from ₹1,386 in 2019 to ₹2,377 in 2024, representing a 71% increase over five years.
  • Wage Growth: In contrast, monthly salaries have only increased by 37% during the same period, highlighting a significant disparity between income growth and rising living costs.
  • Impact on Household Budgets: The disproportionate rise in food costs relative to income levels poses challenges for households, particularly those reliant on fixed incomes or daily wages. For casual laborers, who already allocate a significant portion of their earnings to food, the marginal increase in expenditure further strains household budgets.
  • Implications for Spending Patterns: The widening gap between salaries and essential expenses may compel households to cut back on non-essential purchases, impacting overall consumption patterns and economic growth. Moreover, the financial strain experienced by low-income families underscores the need for targeted interventions to enhance affordability and economic resilience.

What is the Issue:

  • The widening gap between the cost of essential food items and income levels poses a significant challenge for households.
  • Despite modest increases in wages, the rising cost of preparing meals, as exemplified by the vegetarian thali, threatens household budgets and exacerbates financial strain, particularly for low-income families.
  • This trend underscores the pressing need to address affordability issues and ensure economic stability for all segments of society.

Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES):

  • Conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) every 5 years.
  • Aims to collect data on household consumption patterns regarding goods and services.
  • Used to derive macroeconomic indicators like GDP, poverty rates, and Consumer Price Inflation (CPI).
  • Helps calculate estimates for Monthly Per Capita Consumer Expenditure (MPCE) and analyze distribution across different income categories.

What is the Reason Behind it:

  • Economic Factors: Inflationary pressures, supply chain disruptions, and fluctuating commodity prices all play a role in driving up food costs.
  • Climatic Reasons: Rising demand for certain ingredients, coupled with environmental factors such as climate change including the recent rainfall shortage has further exacerbated price volatility.
  • Meanwhile, wage growth has failed to keep pace with these inflationary pressures, leading to a widening disparity between income and expenditure.


  • Income Support: Provide targeted financial assistance to low-income families to help them cope with rising food prices.
  • Minimum Wage Adjustment: Review and adjust minimum wage policies to ensure fair compensation for workers in line with the cost of living.
  • Price Stability Measures: Implement strategies to stabilize food prices, such as buffer stock management and market interventions.
  • Agricultural Investment: Invest in agriculture to boost productivity and reduce food supply chain inefficiencies.
  • Nutrition Education: Launch programs to educate consumers on affordable and nutritious food choices.
  • Social Safety Nets: Strengthen social welfare programs to provide assistance to vulnerable populations affected by economic challenges.