Electric Vehicle Horizon


The Union government’s recent approval of a policy aimed at positioning India as a manufacturing hub for Electric Vehicles (EVs) marks a significant milestone in the country’s journey towards sustainable transportation.

  • With a minimum investment threshold of ₹4,150 crore, the policy seeks to incentivize global EV manufacturers like Tesla and BYD to establish local production facilities, thereby driving

domestic manufacturing and market penetration.

GS-03 (Infrastructure, Science and technology)

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Electric Vehicles (EVs)
  • Understanding the Policy
  • Implications for Global Players
  • Market Dynamics and Challenges
  • Building an EV Ecosystem
  • Suggested Measures

Electric Vehicles (EVs):

  • The push for Electric Vehicles (EVs) is fueled by global climate goals set under the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions.
  • The global electric mobility revolution sees rapid growth in EV uptake, with about two out of every hundred cars sold being electric.
  • Falling battery costs and improved performance efficiencies contribute to the rising demand for EVs globally.
  • Transitioning to electric mobility is seen as a promising strategy for decarbonizing the transport sector.
  • India supports the global EV30@30 campaign, aiming for 30% new vehicle sales to be electric by 2030.
  • India advocates for climate action at international summits like COP26, emphasizing renewable energy and carbon emission reduction targets.
  • The government of India has taken various measures to develop and promote the EV ecosystem in the country such as:
    • The remodeled Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles (FAME II) scheme.
    • Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) for the supplier side.
    • The recently launched PLI scheme for Auto and Automotive Components for manufacturers of electric vehicles.

Understanding the Policy:

  • At its core, the policy aims to facilitate the transition to localized EV production, aligning with market demands and conditions.
  • A key provision of the policy is the reduction of import duties on electric vehicles imported as Completely Built Units (CBUs) valued at $35,000 or more, from the current 70%-100% to 15% for a five-year period, contingent upon the establishment of local manufacturing units within three years.
  • Additionally, manufacturers are expected to achieve 25% localization within three years and 50% within five years, failing which bank guarantees may be revoked.

Implications for Global Players:

  • The policy presents a lucrative opportunity for global EV players to expand their presence in the Indian market, leveraging reduced import duties and localization incentives.
  • However, concerns have been raised by domestic players, such as Tata Motors, regarding the potential impact on the indigenous industry.
  • While the policy may benefit OEMs targeting higher-end consumers, there are apprehensions regarding its impact on domestic manufacturers catering to lower price segments.

Market Dynamics and Challenges:

  • Despite significant progress in the two and three-wheeler segments, passenger vehicles have witnessed limited adoption due to challenges such as inadequate charging infrastructure, range anxiety, and limited affordable product options.
  • Addressing these challenges will be crucial for accelerating EV uptake and achieving the ambitious targets outlined by industry experts and stakeholders.
  • The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has emphasized the need for at least 13 lakh charging stations by 2030 to support widespread EV adoption.

Building an EV Ecosystem:

  • Creating a robust EV ecosystem involves addressing factors such as reliability, durability of components, and service support.
  • Manufacturers must consider local conditions and consumer preferences to develop products tailored to Indian markets.
  • Furthermore, there is a growing recognition of the importance of sustainability in product and system design, highlighting the need for a holistic approach that prioritizes domestic demand and fosters indigenous manufacturing capabilities.

Suggested Measures:

  • Infrastructure Development: Accelerated development of charging infrastructure to alleviate range anxiety and facilitate widespread EV adoption.
  • Technology Innovation: Investment in research and development to enhance battery technology, improve vehicle range, and reduce costs.
  • Skill Development: Training programs and skill development initiatives to build a skilled workforce capable of supporting the growing EV ecosystem.
  • Policy Support: Continued policy support and incentives to encourage localization, investment, and innovation in the EV sector.
  • Public Awareness: Awareness campaigns to educate consumers about the benefits of EVs and dispel myths surrounding range anxiety and charging infrastructure.