Researchers have developed an India-specific artificial intelligence model to precisely determine the gestational age of a foetus in the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

  • The model has been designed by researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras and the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad.
  • It is part of an interdisciplinary group for advanced research on birth outcomes — DBT India initiative (GARBH-Ini) programme.


GS-03 (Science and technology)

Key highlights:

  • The Garbhini-GA2 is the first late-trimester GA estimation model to be developed and validated using Indian population data.
  • Currently models used for Western population are in use which could prove erroneous when applied in the later part of pregnancy due to variations in the growth of the foetus in the Indian population, the researchers say.
  • The Garbhini-GA2 accurately estimates the foetus’ age, reducing error by almost three times.
  • The Indian data would help to provide appropriate care for pregnant women and determine the precise date of birth, thus reducing maternal and infant mortality rates.


  • Garbhini-GA2 stands as a novel computational model engineered to determine the stage of pregnancy for Indian women.
  • This innovation stems from an extensive study called GARBH-Ini, conducted among pregnant women in North India.
  • Functioning within the months 4 to 9 of pregnancy, Garbhini-GA2 utilizes five standard measurements obtained from ultrasound scans:
    • Biparietal diameter (BPD): The width of the baby’s head
    • Occipitofrontal diameter (OFD): The length of the baby’s head
    • Head circumference (HC): The size of the baby’s head around
    • Abdominal circumference (AC): The size of the baby’s belly around
    • Femur length (FL): The length of the baby’s thigh bone
  • Trained on a dataset comprising over 2000 ultrasound scans from Indian women with known pregnancy dates from the 1st trimester, Garbhini-GA2 employs advanced machine learning techniques to estimate gestational age with greater precision, specifically tailored for Indian pregnancies.
  • Studies indicate that it reduces error by threefold compared to formulas based on Western populations. This enhanced accuracy in determining the exact gestational age facilitates the provision of appropriate care for pregnant women.