Great One Horned Rhinoceros

Great One Horned Rhinoceros

Great One Horned Rhinoceros

#GS-03 Biodiversity

For Prelims:

Types of Rhinos:

  • There are five species of rhinos; white and black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhino species in Asia.

IUCN Status:

  • Black Rhino: Critically endangered. Smaller of the two African species.
  • White Rhino: Near Threatened. Researchers have created an embryo of the northern white rhino by using In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process.
  • One-Horned Rhino: Vulnerable
  • Javan: Critically Endangered
  • Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered. It has gone extinct in Malaysia.

About the Great One-Horned Rhino:

  • Great One-Horned Rhino is the only Rhino species found in India and are also known as Indian Rhinos.
  • They are the largest Rhino species and are recognisable by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.
  • The species is restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
  • In India, rhinos are mainly found in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Indian state of Assam is home to the largest population of greater-one horned rhinos, with more than 90% in Kaziranga National Park.
  • Pobitora wildlife sanctuary has the highest density of Indian one-horned rhinos in the world.

CITES Status: Appendix I

Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I.

For Mains:

The measures taken for Rhino protection:

  • The five rhino range nations (India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia) have signed a declaration ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.
  • Recently, the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has begun a project to create DNA profiles of all rhinos in the country.
  • National Rhino Conservation Strategy: It was launched in 2019 to conserve the greater one-horned rhinoceros.
  • Indian Rhino Vision 2020: Launched in 2005, it is an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020.