Great One Horned Rhinoceros
Types of Rhinos:
- There are five species of rhinos; white and black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhino species in Asia.
- Black Rhino: Critically endangered. Smaller of the two African species.
- White Rhino: Near Threatened. Researchers have created an embryo of the northern white rhino by using In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process.
- One-Horned Rhino: Vulnerable
- Javan: Critically Endangered
- Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered. It has gone extinct in Malaysia.
About the Great One-Horned Rhino:
- Great One-Horned Rhino is the only Rhino species found in India and are also known as Indian Rhinos.
- They are the largest Rhino species and are recognisable by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.
- The species is restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
- In India, rhinos are mainly found in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
- The Indian state of Assam is home to the largest population of greater-one horned rhinos, with more than 90% in Kaziranga National Park.
- Pobitora wildlife sanctuary has the highest density of Indian one-horned rhinos in the world.
CITES Status: Appendix I
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I.
The measures taken for Rhino protection:
- The five rhino range nations (India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia) have signed a declaration ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.
- Recently, the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has begun a project to create DNA profiles of all rhinos in the country.
- National Rhino Conservation Strategy: It was launched in 2019 to conserve the greater one-horned rhinoceros.
- Indian Rhino Vision 2020: Launched in 2005, it is an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020.