India To Push G-20 To Raise MNC Tax Share

India To Push G-20 To Raise MNC Tax Share

India To Push G-20 To Raise MNC Tax Share


The 2021 agreement, which updates long-standing regulations on how governments tax multinational corporations, was scheduled to take into effect in more than 140 nations starting in 2019. The current regulations are often regarded as being obsolete because tech titans like Apple and Amazon may record profits in low-tax nations. Large international corporations would be subject to a minimum 15% tax as well as an additional 25% tax on “excess profits” as determined by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

What is Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development?

    • Membership:38 countries make up the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s membership, the majority of which are industrialized and high-income economies. These nations account for a considerable amount of the world’s population and GDP. Western European counties made up the majority of the membership at first, but later non-European nations like the United counties and Canada were added.
    • Objectives: OECD’s core objectives are to advance global trade and economic development. It acts as a forum for member nations to discuss common problems, create effective strategies, and coordinate national and international policies.
    • Influence and Platform: The OECD has a considerable impact on economics and public policy. It gives member nations a forum for exchanging policy experiences, looking for answers to shared difficulties, and working together on numerous projects about social issues, economic development, and trade.
    • Headquarters: The Château de la Muette in Paris, France, is where the OECD is based. This acts as the organization’s main hub for operations and activities.
    • Funding: The OECD is supported by contributions from its member nations. Each member makes a different amount of contributions to the organization’s budget, which is subsequently used to fund its projects, studies, publications, and activities.
    • statistics and Publications on the Economy: The OECD is well known for its vast library of publications and statistics on the economy. It disseminates studies, statistics, and analysis on a variety of subjects, offering insightful assessments of national economies and suggestions for policy.
  • United Nations Observer: The OECD has the title of “Official Observer” at the United Nations. This expands the organization’s worldwide influence and reach by enabling it to actively engage in pertinent UN deliberations and projects.

What are the Objectives of  OCED?

  • OCED Transfer Pricing Guidelines:The OECD offers guidelines for multinational companies and tax authorities to use when determining the pricing of inter-company transactions. These rules aid in ensuring that revenues are distributed fairly across the nations where multinational businesses do business.
  • Model Tax Convention: The OECD makes available a model tax convention that serves as a guide for nations dividing up taxing authority. It is founded on the idea that the multinational corporation’s home country has the primary authority to tax its revenues.
  • Pillar 1:The first pillar of this OECD plan is to distribute multinational revenues to nations following their commercial activity, including online sales in places where they have no physical presence. The goal is to solve the issues brought on by digitization and ensure that multinational firms are taxed fairly.
  • Pillar 2:The worldwide minimum corporate tax is a crucial part of this concept. A minimum tax rate of 15% was set by 130 countries’ finance ministers to stop multinational businesses from moving their profits to low-tax areas. The multinational’s headquarters would be responsible for paying the difference if a nation taxes it at a lower rate.

What is Global Corporate Minimum Tax and how does it work?

  • Levelling the Playing Field: A worldwide corporate minimum tax would create a uniform standard for business taxation across all jurisdictions, leveling the playing field. This would stop a “race to the bottom” in which nations compete by lowering their tax rates to entice business. Setting a minimum rate would give all nations a comparable place to start when taxing corporate profits, which would make it less appealing for MNCs to participate in profit shifting.
  • discouraging tax havens: Tax havens are renowned for delivering extremely low or zero-tax regimes in some nations or territories. MNCs may use these jurisdictions as a means of moving earnings in order to artificially lower their tax obligations. Because profits made in tax havens would still be subject to a minimum level of taxation, a global minimum tax would deter such behavior. This would make it less appealing for businesses to use profit shifting exclusively to lower their tax liabilities.
  • Promoting Fairness:A worldwide corporate minimum tax ensures that MNCs pay a minimum amount of tax, regardless of where they operate, with the goal of promoting justice in taxation. It aims to stop instances in which businesses make substantial profits in high-tax countries but transfer them to low-tax jurisdictions, leading to an imbalance between economic activity and tax obligations.
  • Revenue generation: For nations that currently undergo profit shifting, enacting a global corporate minimum tax may result in higher tax receipts. The funding of public services, infrastructure improvement, and other social programs might be done with the additional revenue.

How does it work?

  • Purpose: The global corporate minimum tax’s goal is to ensure that multinational corporations (MNEs) pay a minimum amount of tax, regardless of where they conduct business. It is a component of the OECD’s larger BEPS programme, which aims to address MNEs’ use of tax avoidance techniques.
  • Country-by-Country Basis: One strategy under consideration is to allocate and attribute profits on a country-by-country basis. MNEs would have to decide how much of their income to allocate to particular countries based on things like sales, staff, and assets. To prevent profit shifting to low-tax countries, this strategy aims to match profits with economic activity in each nation.
  • Include Particular Income or Activities: Including particular types of income or activities in the tax base is another strategy. Income from intangible assets like intellectual property and profits from online business operations may fall under this category. The aim is to prevent excessive profit shifting and to ensure that various income streams are taxed fairly.
  • Negotiations and OCEd Framework: The OECD is in charge of spearheading the efforts to create a framework for the global corporate minimum tax. Negotiations. To establish an agreement on the definition of the tax base and associated regulations, consultations are required among its member nations. To guarantee a fair and efficient minimum tax regime globally, it is important to develop a consistent and standardized strategy.

What is India intending to do with this new Tax regime?

  • India is urging its G-20 partners to support its proposal to raise the share of taxes paid by multinational companies to the countries where they earn “excess profits.”
  • The proposal aims to address the outdated international tax rules that allow digital giants like Apple or Amazon to book profits in low-tax countries, leading to concerns about tax avoidance.
  • More than 140 countries reached a deal in 2021 to overhaul these tax rules, with implementation planned to begin next year. The deal includes a minimum 15% tax on large global firms and an additional 25% tax on “excess profits” defined by the OECD.
  • However, there are issues with the multilateral agreement that forms the basis of a sizable portion of the tax reform proposal. The accord is viewed with scepticism by several nations, which might jeopardize the overall reform initiative.
  • India is pushing for a marked rise in the taxes that multinational corporations pay in the nations where they do business. India specifically requests that a higher share of the 25% fee on excess earnings go to the nations where these businesses operate.
  • India wants to secure a fair distribution of tax revenues and allay worries about multinational firms lowering their tax commitments by lobbying for a bigger percentage of taxing rights on surplus profits.
  • Global corporations with yearly revenues over $22 billion are deemed to be producing excess profits under the agreement if their profits grow at a rate of more than 10% annually. The participating nations are supposed to split the 25% fee on these excess profits.
  • India wants to secure a fair distribution of tax revenues and allay worries about multinational firms lowering their tax commitments by lobbying for a bigger percentage of taxing rights on surplus profits.
  • The outcome of the G-20 meeting’s discussions and negotiations will decide the degree of support for India’s plan and its possible impact on the global corporation tax reform as a whole.