India’s net zero plan
#GS-03 Environment, Science and Technology
What is Carbon Neutrality:
- Carbon neutrality is a state of net-zero carbon dioxide emissions.
- This however does not mean that a country does not emit carbon dioxide, it just means that the amount of CO2 emitted by the nation is also absorbed by various carbon sinks in the country.
Countries and their Carbon Neutrality Targets:
- Bhutan and Suriname are the only two countries that have achieved carbon neutrality and are actually carbon negative (removing more carbon than they emit).
- Under the European Green Deal of the European Commission, Europe is expected to be carbon neutral by 2050.
- USA has also declared their aim to make the country carbon neutral by the year 2050.
- In September 2020, China announced that it would aim to reach a peak in its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
- India has undertaken a pledge saying that it will transition to net zero emissions by 2070.
Types of Hydrogen
- Green hydrogen is defined as hydrogen produced by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using renewable electricity.
- Blue hydrogen is when natural gas is split into hydrogen and CO2 either by Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) or Auto Thermal Reforming (ATR), but the CO2 is captured and then stored.
- The ‘capturing’ is done through a process called Carbon Capture Usage and Storage (CCUS).
- Producing Grey Hydrogen is a similar process to blue hydrogen where SMR or ATR are used to split natural gas into Hydrogen and CO2.
- But the CO2 is not captured and is released into the atmosphere.
- Similar to green hydrogen, pink hydrogen is made via electrolysis, but using nuclear energy as its source of power.
- Another type of hydrogen made by electrolysis is yellow, where electrolysis is achieved solely through solar power.
- This is unlike green which could use a combination of renewable energy sources such as wind or solar or tidal etc.