India’s population growth
- The United Nations has declared that World population has reached 8 billion on 15 November 2022.
- India was the largest contributor to the milestone, having added 177 million people of the last billion people born in the world.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR):
- The total fertility rate in a specific year is defined as the total number of children that would be born to each woman if she were to live to the end of her child-bearing years and give birth to children in alignment with the prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
- TFR can be calculated as the sum of the age-specific fertility rates for all women multiplied by five.
- India’s TFR has declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level.
States with highest TFR are:
- Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26) and Manipur (2.17).
States with lowest TFR are:
- Sikkim (1.1), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1.3), Goa (1.3), Ladakh (1.3), Jammu and Kashmir (1.4) and Lakshadweep (1.4) reported a TFR of less than 1.5 children per woman.
Kerala was the only state that experienced an increase in TFR to 1.8 from 1.6 in 2015-16
- Replacement level fertility is the level of fertility at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next.
- In India Total Fertility Rate of about 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility.
- A total of 31 States and Union Territories (constituting 69.7% of the country’s population) have achieved fertility rates below the replacement level of 2.1.
The causes for declining TFR:
The main reasons for the decline in fertility include:
- increase in adoption of modern family planning methods (from 47.8% in 2015-16 to 56.5% in 2019-21).
- a reduction in unmet need for family planning by four percentage points over the same period.
- significant improvements in access to family planning related information and services.
To know more about India’s Population click here.