Indus Waters Treaty
#GS-02 International Relations
Indus Waters Treaty
- Indus Waters Treaty was brokered by the World Bank after nine year long negotiations on September 19, 1960.
- Under the treaty all the waters of three Eastern rivers, namely Ravi, Sutlej and Beas were allocated to India for its exclusive use while, the waters of Western rivers i.e., Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan
- However, India was allowed to use the water from Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab for specified domestic, non-consumptive and agricultural use as provided in the Treaty.
- As per the treaty 20% of the water from the Indus River System goes to India and the rest 80% to Pakistan.
Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project (KHEP)
- Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project (KHEP) is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric project that uses a 37 m tall concrete-face rock-fill dam to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin.
- It will have an installed capacity of 330 MW, and is expected to generate 1,713 million units of electricity per annum.
- Pakistan had raised objections regarding the height of the dam, and consequently India agreed to alter the design by lowering its height from 97 metres to 37 metres.
- In 2010 they took the matter to the International Court of Arbitration citing the diversion of water from Kishanganga.
- The Court gave its final ruling in 2013 allowing the project subjected to conditions and even though Pakistan objected in 2016 and again in 2018 the project was inaugurated in 2018.
Ratle hydropower project
- Similar to the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project, this is also a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station on the Chenab River.
- The project utilises a 133 m (436 ft) tall gravity dam and two power stations adjacent to one another which will have an installed capacity of 850 MW.
- Pakistan has repeatedly raised concerns over its design alleging that it would allow India to create deliberate and artificial water shortage or cause flooding in Pakistan.
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