Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

 Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)


Recently, India is witnessing a rise in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

GS-2 (Health)


  • About  Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD):
    •  Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic autoimmune condition where the white blood cells mistakenly identify cells in the human gut as their enemy and decide to attack it, causing ulcers in the mucosa.
    • As a result a child with IBD may develop fever, loose stools and bloody diarrhoea. These children may lose weight, muscle mass, and may have vitamin deficiencies
  • Types of IBD: IBD is a chronic autoimmune condition with two main types: Ulcerative Colitis, which affects only the large bowel, and Crohn’s Disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
  • Causes and Risk Factors: IBD may be caused by a dysregulated immune response to environmental triggers such as viruses or bacteria, with genetic factors also playing a role. Changes in gut microbiota due to antibiotics and Westernized diet and lifestyle are linked to IBD.
  • Treatment Options: Crohn’s Disease is treated with medications like steroids and biologics to control inflammation and suppress the immune system. In some cases, diet therapy such as ‘exclusive enteral nutrition’ can help. Ulcerative Colitis treatment includes aminosalicylates and sometimes steroids or biologics.


  • Financial constraints and the high cost of biologics pose significant challenges for many patients.
  • Additionally, timely and accurate diagnosis of IBD is often difficult, with the disease sometimes being mistaken for tuberculosis.


There is a crucial need for increased awareness of IBD among both the general public and the medical community to ensure early diagnosis and effective treatment.