Kaziranga National Park

#GS 03 Biodiversity Conservation

For Prelims

Kaziranga National Park

  • Kaziranga National Park lies along the river Brahmaputra on the North and the Karbi Anglong hills on the South.
  • It is home to around 2600 Indian one-horned rhinoceros, approximately 2/3rd of their total world population.
  • Along with the iconic Greater one-horned rhinoceros, the park is the breeding ground of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.
  • Over the time, the tiger population has also increased in Kaziranga, and that’s the reason why Kaziranga was declared as Tiger Reserve in 2006.
  • Also, the park is recognized as an Important Bird Area by Bird Life International for the conservation of avifaunal species.
  • Birds like lesser white-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck and lesser adjutant, greater adjutant, black-necked stork, and Asian Openbill stork specially migrate from the Central Asia during the winter season.
  • The forest region of Kaziranga Park is home to world’s largest population of Indian Rhinoceros.
  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has sought a “factual report” on the rhino population enumeration, conducted in the Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve in March 2022.

Great One Horned Rhinoceros

  • Great One-Horned Rhino is the only Rhino species found in India and are also known as Indian Rhinos.
  • They are the largest Rhino species and are recognisable by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.
  • The species is restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
  • In India, rhinos are mainly found in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Indian state of Assam is home to the largest population of greater-one horned rhinos, with more than 90% in Kaziranga National Park.
  • Pobitora wildlife sanctuary has the highest density of Indian one-horned rhinos in the world.