Left Wing Extremism (LWE)

Editorial Analysis for IAS - Iran nuclear deal

Left Wing Extremism (LWE)



  • Left Wing Extremism (LWE) related violence in the country has declined by 77% from all time high of 2258 incidents in 2009 to 509 in 2021.
  • Similarly, resultant deaths (Civilians + Security Forces) have declined by 85% from all time high of 1005 in 2010 to 147 in 2021.
  • In the last two years the incidents of LWE violence and the resultant deaths have come down by 24% and 27%, respectively.
  • This was stated by the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri Nityanand Rai in a written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha recently.




  • As per the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India, subjects of ‘Police and Public Order’ are with the State Governments.
  • However, the Government of India (GoI) has been taking a series of measures to address the LWE and separatist activities in the country.
  • Central Government is implementing National Policy and Action Plan 2015 to address the LWE menace.
  • The Policy consists of a multi-pronged approach comprising security measures, development initiatives and ensuring rights & entitlements of local communities.
  • Further, the Central Government provides funds to the State Government for strengthening of the state police forces and agencies.
  • It has also taken several steps to enhance internal security apparatus of the country such as augmenting the strength and capability of the security forces and agencies, increasing their operational efficiency, and providing them the state of the art technology.
  • It has also strengthened the legal and institutional framework to combat the extremist and separatist by amending The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act, 1967, National Investigation Agency Act 2008, etc. and other such measures.   
  • Moreover, the Law Enforcement Agencies and security forces keep a track of the real time developments on the Khalistani separatists’ front in order to tackle the challenge.




  • The left-wing extremism (LWE) or Naxal insurgency in India originated in a 1967 uprising in Naxalbari, West Bengal by the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
  • They are the group of people who believe in the political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong. 
  • The Naxals strongly believe that the solution to social and economic discrimination is to overthrow the existing political system.


Causes of left-wing extremism in India


Inequitable development:
  • The failure of land reforms especially land redistribution after independence.
  • Socio-economic inequities, unemployment, despair about the future.
  • Disruption of traditional occupations and lack of alternative work opportunities.


Displacement of people: Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals:
  • Forced Displacements caused by mining, irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
  • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensation or rehabilitation


Discrimination against tribals: 
  • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
  • Non-regularization of traditional land rights under FRA, 2006.
  • Hasty rejections of land grants to tribals.

Source: THE HINDU.