Line of Actual Control (LAC)

Line of Actual Control (LAC)

Line of Actual Control (LAC)

#GS-02 International Relations

For Prelims

Line of Actual Control:

  • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a notional demarcation line that separates Indiancontrolled territory from Chinesecontrolled territory in parts of Indo-China border.
  • LAC originally referred only to the boundary in the western sector after the 1962 Sino-Indian War, but since the 1990s came to refer to the entire de facto border.
Divisions of LAC:

The LAC is generally divided into three sectors:

  • the western sector which is divided between Ladakh on the Indian side and the Tibet and Xinjiang regions on the Chinese
  • the middle sector which is divided between Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh on the Indian side and the Tibet region on the Chinese
  • the eastern sector between Arunachal Pradesh on the Indian side and the Tibet region on the Chinese side. This sector generally follows the McMahon Line.

McMahon Line:

  • The McMahon Line is the boundary between Tibet and British India as agreed in the 1914 Shimla Convention.
  • The PRC refuses to acknowledge McMahon Line as the legitimate boundary since Republic of China was not a party to the convention.
  • The Indian government sees the line as the de facto boundary between China and India.
  • The line is named after Henry McMahon, foreign secretary of British India and was the chief British negotiator of the conference at Shimla.

Shimla Convention:

  • Officially known as the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet was a treaty concerning the status of Tibet.
  • It was negotiated by representatives of the Republic of China, Tibet and Great Britain in Shimla in 1913 and 1914.
  • The Shimla Convention divided Tibet into “Outer Tibet” and “Inner Tibet“.
  • The outer Tibet was to have considerable autonomy and a Chinese promise not to interfere on its internal matters, however it was to remain under Chinese suzerainty.
  • Inner Tibet would be under the jurisdiction of the Chinese government.
  • A draft convention was initialled by all three countries on 27 April 1914, which was immediately repudiated by China.
  • A slightly revised convention was signed again on 3 July 1914, but only by Britain and Tibet with the Chinese refusing to sign it.
  • The convention also demarcated the border between Tibet and British India by the McMahon Line.

Source “China is expanding model villages in strategic areas