Moving away from the ‘take-make-dispose’ model

Moving away from the ‘take-make-dispose’ model.


The article emphasizes the importance of decoupling resource utilization from economic growth and the need to shift from the traditional ‘take-make-dispose’ model to the more sustainable ‘reduce-reuse-recycle’ approach.


GS – 02 (Government Policies & Interventions)

GS – 03 (Environmental Pollution & Degradation) (Growth & Development) (Conservation)


  • Circular Economy
  • e-Waste Management Rules 2022
  • EPR Certificates
  • Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

Mains Questions:

“Embracing Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy for Sustainable Development”. Comment. (250 words)

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Transitioning to a Circular Steel Sector
  • Recycling, Bioeconomy, and Biofuels: Nurturing a Sustainable Waste Management System
  • Industry Coalition

Transitioning to a Circular Steel Sector:

  • In pursuit of net-zero ambitions and greenhouse gas emission reduction, most G20 member nations are committed to environmentally responsible resource consumption. Recognizing the critical role of steel in infrastructure development and the surging demand in economies like India, it becomes imperative to enhance steel’s efficient utilization.
  • Currently, iron and steel production contribute approximately 7% of global energy sector emissions. A transformative shift towards a circular steel sector holds the key to address this environmental challenge.
  • Encouraging collaboration among G20 member countries is vital for knowledge sharing, technology co-development, and technology transfer. The blueprint for “Circular Economy in the Steel Sector,” outlined in the G20 presidency document, presents a potential pathway to achieve net-zero emissions in the steel industry.
  • This strategic approach aims to reduce resource utilization and minimize wastage. Additionally, India’s G20 presidency emphasizes the significance of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) framework to integrate circularity throughout the value chain.
  • The exchange of best practices among G-20 nations is crucial to accelerate the transition towards a circular economy.

Recycling, Bioeconomy, and Biofuels: Nurturing a Sustainable Waste Management System

  • Effective implementation of the EPR framework plays a pivotal role in promoting recycling infrastructure growth and streamlining waste collection. India’s impressive EPR framework boasts over 20,000 registered Producers, Importers, and Brand Owners (PIBOs), along with more than 1,900 plastic waste processors on the central portal. With a combined EPR obligation of over 3.07 million tons, India demonstrates its commitment to responsible waste management.
  • The escalating consumption of biological resources in G-20 countries, which has surged 2.5 times since 1970, has sparked global concerns over biowaste management. Burning biowaste like municipal and industrial waste and agricultural residue causes pollution, biodiversity loss, and global warming. However, adopting a circular bioeconomy approach presents a sustainable solution. By utilizing biowaste as primary raw materials and substituting mineral resources, the need for virgin resource extraction can be significantly reduced.
  • India has taken commendable steps towards biofuel adoption. The Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana offers financial support for second-generation (2G) ethanol projects that produce bioethanol from waste feedstock like crop residues and municipal solid waste. This initiative adds value to otherwise discarded resources. Furthermore, India has mandated coal-burning thermal power plants to blend 5% biomass pellets with coal, promoting greener practices.
  • The GOBAR Dhan scheme’s launch facilitates the conversion of cattle dung and organic waste into compost, biogas, and biofuels, fostering sustainable agriculture and pollution reduction. The Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) Scheme accelerates the bioenergy sector’s development by promoting Compressed BioGas (CBG) as an alternative green transportation fuel.

Industry Coalition:

  • Industries play a pivotal role in advancing resource efficiency and circular economy practices. In line with this vision, India envisions an industry coalition to foster technological collaboration, enhance capabilities across sectors, mobilize de-risked finance, and promote proactive private sector engagement.
  • This coalition seeks to fortify circular economy practices and drive sustainable development.

Way Forward:

In the quest to tackle triple planetary challenges, global platforms like the G-20 hold significant importance. Recognizing the potential of resource efficiency and circular economy as key solutions, India’s G-20 presidency has placed significant emphasis on these approaches. By fostering collaboration, sharing best practices, and adopting a circular mindset, nations can pave promising pathways towards a more sustainable and resilient future.


As we strive for sustainable development, the adoption of resource efficiency and circular economy strategies emerges as a crucial endeavor. India’s G-20 presidency exemplifies the commitment to these principles, focusing on transitioning to a circular steel sector, promoting recycling, bioeconomy, and biofuels, and envisioning an industry-led coalition for sustainability. By embracing these approaches with a collaborative spirit, nations can march towards a greener, more prosperous, and environmentally conscious future.