On the moon, over the moon

On the moon, over the moon

On the moon, over the moon


In the vast expanse of space, a significant moment emerged on August 23 at 5.40 p.m. It marked the ascent of Chandrayaan-3, a 1.7-tonne amalgamation of metal, plastic, and glass, orbiting around 30 km above the moon. In a mere 23 minutes that followed, history unfurled its pages as the lander gracefully decelerated, reoriented itself, and embarked on a gentle descent, facilitated by a sophisticated array of sensors and actuators. As the clock struck 6 p.m., exultation spread across various Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) centers and throughout India. This landmark event cemented India’s status as the fourth nation to softly land a spacecraft on the moon, and notably, the first to achieve this feat within the moon’s Southern Polar region.


GS – 03 (Space Technology)


  • Chandrayaan-3
  • Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth
  • Satish Dhawan Space Center
  • Elliptic Parking Orbit
  • LVM3 M4
  • Flybys
  • Orbiters
  • Impact Missions
  • NASA’s Artemis Program

Mains Question:

  • What are the implications of India’s successful Chandrayaan-3 mission on the country’s space exploration trajectory and its role in the global space community? (150 words)

Significance of Landing Near the Lunar South Pole:

  • In the historical context of lunar missions, the primary focus has been on the equatorial region of the Moon due to its advantageous terrain and favorable operational conditions.
  • Certain polar areas experience limited sunlight, resulting in perpetually shaded areas where temperatures can plummet to an astonishing -230 degrees Celsius. This scarcity of sunlight combined with the extreme cold presents formidable challenges for the functionality and sustainability of scientific instruments.
  • The lunar south pole showcases an array of extreme and divergent conditions that not only present obstacles for human exploration but also offer the potential to hold invaluable insights into the early Solar System.
  • Exploring this region takes on a paramount role as it can significantly influence the trajectory of future deep space expeditions. The information that can be gleaned from this region has the capacity to reshape our understanding of celestial evolution.

India’s Previous Chandrayaan Missions:

  • The journey of India’s lunar exploration initiatives commenced with Chandrayaan-1 in 2008, a mission geared towards constructing a comprehensive three-dimensional map of the lunar surface and conducting detailed mineralogical assessments. The launch was facilitated by the PSLV-C11 launch vehicle. This mission yielded notable achievements, including the identification of water and hydroxyl on the lunar expanse.
  • Following this, Chandrayaan-2 entered the scene, comprising an Orbiter, Lander, and Rover, with the explicit objective of investigating the lunar south pole. This mission utilized the GSLV MkIII-M1 launch vehicle. Although the lander and rover unfortunately experienced crash landings on the lunar surface, the Orbiter triumphantly amassed vital data. Among its significant findings was the detection of water signatures across various latitudes of the Moon, marking a substantial step forward in lunar exploration.

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Unraveling Lessons from Adversity
  • A Confluence of Time and Space
  • Pioneering Science Beyond Borders
  • Transition and Continuity

Unraveling Lessons from Adversity:

  • Delving deeper, the recent touchdown of Chandrayaan-3 on the lunar surface illuminates ISRO’s acumen in gleaning insights from the setbacks of its predecessor, Chandrayaan-2.
  • A pivotal juncture emerged in September 2019 when Chandrayaan-2’s lander lost contact while merely 2.1 km above the lunar terrain. Drawing from data transmitted thus far, combined with inputs from the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and other sources, ISRO meticulously identified the root causes of the lander’s premature cessation.
  • This unraveling culminated in the refinement of 21 subsystems, laying the foundation for the enhanced Chandrayaan-3 lander.
  • The latter stands distinguished for its robust redundancies, poised to seamlessly assume control if any component falters.

A Confluence of Time and Space:

  • Broadening our perspective, Chandrayaan-3’s milestone coincides with a moment of strategic significance. India’s participation in the Artemis Accords, an initiative spearheaded by the U.S. to facilitate lunar human presence by 2025 and extend exploratory endeavors within the solar system’s precincts, underscores the nation’s ascendancy.
  • As India strides ahead with pioneering achievements, it assumes a leadership role among fellow Artemis nations aspiring to harness the economic potential of space. While Russia’s recent setback involving the Luna-25 spacecraft accentuates its limited role, India’s triumph ushers it into the International Lunar Research Station program alongside China, fortifying the parallel trajectory of the Artemis Accords.
  • The deployment of Chandrayaan-3 not only underscores India’s adeptness in interplanetary ventures but also accentuates the need for astute scientific mission planning and execution.

Pioneering Science Beyond Borders:

  • The modest Chandrayaan-3 rover stands as a testament to India’s evolving space agenda, pivoting towards scientific exploration. Its pivotal mission entails the physical, chemical, and thermal analysis of the soil, subsoil, and atmosphere surrounding the moon’s South Pole.
  • The culmination of this mission resonates with India’s technological prowess, presenting a compelling opportunity to extend scientific inquiries across the solar system’s panorama.
  • Despite existing strengths in earth observation and remote sensing, India’s scientific aspirations beckon greater investment in research and a mission framework that prioritizes scientific outcomes over engineering benchmarks.

Transition and Continuity:

  • The successful landing signifies the culmination of India’s second lunar exploration phase and heralds the inception of the third. An alliance with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Lunar Polar Exploration (LUPEX) initiative takes center stage.
  • LUPEX envisions a lander and rover partnership, dedicated to studying water-ice at the moon’s Southern Polar region.
  • LUPEX capitalizes on the landing system devised for Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3, a testament to ISRO’s ingenuity in evolving its capabilities.
  • This progress is amplified by the trajectory India embarks upon, encompassing electrically powered satellites, quantum communication, human space endeavors, reusable launch vehicles, planetary habitation, and interplanetary communication.
  • The unfolding of space endeavors hinges on the active involvement of the private sector, channeling innovation and opportunities to propel India’s holistic development.


The ascent of Chandrayaan-3 resonates as a historical leap, intertwining human resolve with technological marvels. India, propelled by this triumph, emerges as a vanguard in the cosmic narrative, charting a course that extends beyond boundaries. As ISRO’s journey progresses, the orchestration of space endeavors embraces a synergy between the quest for knowledge and the fostering of growth. Thus, India’s voyage into the celestial realm exemplifies the symphony of human ingenuity, poised to script chapters of exploration yet to be written.