#GS-03 Science and Technology
- Shukrayaan is ISRO’s mission to Venus with an aim to study Venus’ atmosphere, which is toxic and corrosive in nature as clouds of sulfuric acid cover the planet.
- The orbiter, is expected to have a science payload capability of approximately 100 kilograms with 500 W available power.
- The orbiter is planned to be launched onboard a GSLV Mk II.
- Shukrayaan I, was expected to be launched in December 2024 but mission could be postponed to 2031 due to budget concerns.
The key objectives of its mission are
- The investigation of surface process and shallow subsurface stratigraphy since no observation of the sub-surface of Venus has been done prior to now.
- Study the structure, composition and dynamics of the atmosphere of Venus in infrared, ultraviolet, and submillimetre
- Investigating interaction of Solar winds with the Venusian ionosphere.
Earlier Missions to Venus
- NASA’s Mariner 2 was the first spacecraft to do a successful fly by past another planet on 14 December 1962.
- Soviet Union’s Venera 4 in 12 June 1967 conducted the first successful atmospheric entry in Venus.
- Soviet Union’s Venera 7 on 17 August 1970 conducted the first soft landing on another planet.
- Soviet Union’s Venera 9 was the first orbiter of Venus and first to capture images from the surface of another planet.
- Venus is the second planet from the Sun in distance and sixth largest and heaviest in the solar system.
- It is also the second brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky.
- Venus like Uranus spin clockwise on their axis unlike the other planets in our solar system.
- It takes Venus longer to rotate once on its axis than to complete one orbit around the Sun which means a day on Venus is longer than a year.
- It is the closest large celestial body to Earth other than the Moon and is similar in mass, size, and density and relative position in the solar system to earth..
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