The Man And Biosphere programme

A chance to expand the world’s biosphere footprint

# GS-03 Biodiversity

For Prelims

About MAB:

  • The Man And Biosphere programme is an intergovernmental scientific programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for enhancing the relationship between people and their environments.
  • It combines the natural and social sciences with a view to improving human livelihoods and safeguarding natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are socially and culturally appropriate and environmentally sustainable.
  • November 3 will be the first ‘The International Day for Biosphere Reserves’, to be celebrated beginning 2022.

MAB sites in India:

2000 Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu
2001 Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu
2001 Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal
2004 Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand
2009 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh
2009 Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya
2009 Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha
2012 Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh
2013 Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Great Nicobar
2016 Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Kerala and Tamil Nadu
2018 Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve Sikkim
2020 Panna Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh


About World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR):

  • The World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) was formed in 1971, as a backbone for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem restoration, and living in harmony with nature.
  • WNBR is a unique tool for cooperation through sharing knowledge, exchanging experiences, building capacity and promoting best practices. Its members are always ready to support each other.
  • In South Asia, over 30 biosphere reserves have been established.
  • The first one was the Hurulu Biosphere Reserve, in Sri Lanka, with 25,500 hectares of tropical dry evergreen forest.
  • In India, the first biosphere reserve was designated by UNESCO in 2000 namely the Nilgiris.
  • Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Nepal do not have biospheres as yet.
  • Spain, with a landmass of 506,000 km2, and a population of 47.4 million is one of the lead participating WNBR countries globally, with 53 properties.
  • The World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently counts 738 sites in 134 countries all over the world, including 22 transboundary sites.