UN Peacekeeping Force and India
#GS-02 International Relations
- The UN Peacekeeping Forces were first deployed when the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of UN military observers to the Middle East in 1948.
- The UN Peacekeeping force is supplemented by military and law enforcement personnel from member countries on a volunteer basis.
- India will be deploying an all-woman platoon of peacekeepers as part of a battalion to the United Nations Interim Security Force in Sudan.
- This is India’s largest single unit of women peacekeepers in a UN mission since the deployment of the first-ever all woman contingent in Liberia in 2007
Three basic principles of UNPKF:
Consent of the parties:
- UN peacekeeping operations are deployed only with the consent of the main parties to the conflict.
- This requires a commitment by the parties to follow a political process.
- United Nations peacekeepers are required to be impartial in their dealings with the parties to the conflict.
- However, they do not have to be neutral in the execution of their mandate.
Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate:
- UN peacekeeping operations are not to be used as an enforcement tool.
- However, with the authorization of the Security Council, they may use force at the tactical level, for self-defence and defence of the mandate.
Structure and Functioning of UNPKF
- UNPKF is a combined effort by the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Secretariat, troop and police contributors and the host governments to maintain international peace and security.
- The Security Council has the responsibility to determine when and where a UN peace operation should be deployed.
- This is done through the adoption of a Security Council resolution which sets out that mission’s and size mandate.
- The Security Council has the power to extend, amend or end mission mandates if it deems appropriate through voting.
Present UNPKF Missions
- Presently there are 12 UN peacekeeping operations deployed on three of the continents.
UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN (UNMOGIP)
- This mission is deployed in Jammu & Kashmir to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan on 24 January of 1949.
Department of Peace Operations (DPO):
- DPO provides political and executive direction to UN peacekeeping operations around the world.
- It also maintains contact with the Security Council, troop and financial contributors, and parties to the conflict in the implementation of Security Council mandates.