In an era of increasing urbanisation, digitalization, and population growth, the problem of treating
e waste is a complex and continuous concern. 2012 saw the implementation of the initial set of e-waste legislation, which had been announced in 2011. 

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR): 

One of the most important aspects of the Regulations was the implementation of EPR (2011). The“producers” are in charge of ensuring proper electronic and electric device disposal after customer usage in accordance with EPR compliance. 
The comprehensive e-waste guidelines from 2016 included clauses for “product stewardship” and “authorization,” which were changed in 2018. These restrictions also incorporated other stakeholder groups, such as “Producer Responsibility Organizations” (PRO). 

Rules for the Handling of E-Waste (2022): 

Moreover, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEFCC) declared new e-waste legislation that will take effect on April 1, 2023 in November 2022. Several important difficulties are addressed by these constraints, but not all of them. An EPR framework is included in the statutes’ first major chapter, with “Registration of Stakeholders” as the key requirement (manufacturer, producer, refurbisher and recycler). 
The previous regulations gave priority to stakeholder authorisation, but due to a poor monitoring system and a lack of transparency, there wasn’t enough compliance. According to India’s Central 
Pollution Control Board, the bulk of “refurbishers” or “repair firms” in Delhi operate illegally (CPCB). 
Yet, many trustworthy recyclers merely carry out tasks up to the pre-processing or segregation stage before handing off e waste to the unorganised sector, which is obviously against the law. 
Under the new laws (2022), a “digitalized systems approach” may now take care of these problems. 
“Paper trading” or “false trail” is the practise of gathering and/or weighing “scrap” while claiming that 
100% of it has been gathered in order to fulfil targets. Standardizing the e-waste value chain through a 
shared digital “portal” may provide transparency and is essential to lessen its occurrence.

It was narrow-minded to disregard the unorganised sector: 

The guidelines make only passing mention of the two topics and make no mention of what must be done to ensure the “recovery tangent.” The amount of e-waste that was sent for recycling and the final “recovery” should be continuously monitored by the authorities to ensure optimal efficiency. 
The system needs to keep track of the recyclers’ activities. 
In addition, the new announcement abolishes PRO and dismantlers and gives licenced recyclers control of recycling. These recyclers will need to gather a specific amount of trash, recycle it, and create digital certificates using the website. 
This decision appears to be somewhat ill-advised and may lead to some initial instability, which the unapproved channels may try to exploit.
By competing for contracts with producers and establishing “certified and authorised” recycling, PROs served as a bridge between official recyclers and manufacturers. 

The informal sector’s role is:

The informal sector, which is essential to treating e-waste, is not acknowledged in the new legislation due to its “illegality.” Since 95% of India’s e-waste is received by the informal sector, it serves as the “face” of the country’s e-waste disposal. Because of them, the management of e-waste could advance significantly.

The phase when the material is sent to the informal dismantlers/recyclers presents the most challenges in the hierarchical process of e waste collection, segregation, and recycling in the informal sector. In order to improve e-waste collection, the following procedures—collecting mixed garbage, sorting ewaste, and categorising e-waste according to type—should be used carefully. 

Unauthorized aggregators were employed in the data collection process by “Karo Sambhav,” a Delhi based PRO. Through this project, the unorganised sector is given financial and legal security, and ewaste is introduced into a secure and well-organized system. 


Stakeholders must have the knowledge and motivation to properly dispose of e-waste in order to 
ensure that the law is applied efficiently.
Source The Hindu