#GS-03 Science and Technology

For Prelims


  • The BrahMos missile is a two-stage missile with a solid-fuel booster engine.
  • Its first stage accelerates the missile to supersonic speeds before detaching itself.
  • In cruise phase, the liquid ramjet, or second stage, accelerates the missile to three times the speed of sound.
  • The missile has a low radar signature and may go in a number of directions, increasing its stealth capability.
  • BrahMos is the world’s fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation.
  • It is capable of carrying a regular warhead as well as a nuclear warhead.
  • BrahMos was developed as a joint venture between India’s Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation’s NPO Mashinostroyeniya.
  • BrahMos Aerospace was jointly created by both organisation and is responsible for the development of BrahMos.
  • It is named after two major rivers of India and Russia viz, Brahmaputra and Moskva.

Features of BrahMos

  • Stealth Technology.
  • Advanced guidance system.
  • High Target Accuracy (irrespective of weather conditions).
  • Constant supersonic speed.
  • Operates on ‘Fire and Forget’ Principle.
  • BrahMos is a multiplatform missile hence it can be launched from land, aircraft, ships, and even submarines.
  • It is one of the heaviest missiles, weighing up to 2.5 tonnes.
  • The range of BrahMos missile was initially capped at 290 km as per obligations of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).
  • Since India joined MTCR on June 2016 the extended range variant has been under development.
  • The extended range (ER) variant of air-launched version of BrahMos was successfully test fired on 29th December 2022.