International Monetary Fund (IMF)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

#GS-02 International Organisation, #GS-03 External Sector

For Prelims

International Monetary Fund

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an intergovernmental organization which currently has a membership of 190 countries.
  • The idea for the formation of IMF was conceptualised in 1944 during the Bretton Woods Conference.
  • IMF became operationalised on 27th December 1945.

Mission of IMF:

  • IMF was created to help countries going through a foreign currency shortage by giving them long term loans with low interest rates.

It also aims to stabilise the international financial market through;

  • furthering international monetary cooperation,
  • encouraging the expansion of trade and economic growth, and
  • discouraging policies that would harm prosperity.

Special Drawing Rights

  • Special Drawing Rights (SDR) is an international reserve asset created by the IMF.
  • The SDR basket contains US dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen, and British Pound Sterling and Chinese Renminbi as standard currencies.
  • The only two criteria for a currency to be included in SDR basket are the export criterion and the freely usable criterion.
  • A currency can meet the export criterion if its issuer is a member of IMF or belong to a monetary union that includes IMF members and is also one of the top five exporters in the world.
  • For a currency to be deemed “freely usable” by the IMF, it has should be widely used as a means of payments for international transactions and has to be widely traded in the principal exchange markets.

Source “Backing Sri Lanka, India sends financing assurances to IMF

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